WHAT IS GYNECOMASTIA?
Gynecomastia is a condition of excessive breast development defined as large breasts in men. It is an aesthetic problem that is frequently experienced in male cases. Gynecomastia can be observed in infancy and youth, as well as in old age. Although gynecomastia is a health problem that we can call a benign tumor, it is not harmful. However, since gynecomastia does not regress spontaneously, it requires surgical intervention.
Causes of Gynecomastia
The causes of gynecomastia can be multiple. Gynecomastia occurs with an irregularity or imbalance of estrogen and testosterone hormones. In other words, gynecomastia may occur due to the decrease in the amount of testosterone in the body. Certain medications can also cause gynecomastia. Chemotherapy drugs, anxiety drugs, anabolic steroids and androgens, some drugs used in prostate treatment, some antibiotics, some heart drugs can cause gynecomastia. Alcohol is one of the main factors that can play an active role in the formation of gynecomastia, apart from drugs. Drugs and alcohol substances can also cause gynecomastia.
Who is at Risk of Gynecomastia?
The high-risk group for gynecomastia is usually adolescent boys and the elderly. In addition, people who use anabolic steroids and androgens due to their sports history and those with liver, kidney or thyroid diseases are among the high risk groups for gynecomastia.
What are the Symptoms of Gynecomastia?
Gynecomastia symptoms are usually diagnosed by observation of the breasts. Pain, swelling, fluid coming from the nipple and tenderness in the breasts are the symptoms of gynecomastia.
How Is Gynecomastia Diagnosed?
In order to diagnose gynecomastia, the patient should observe himself and understand whether the above-mentioned symptoms are present. The most important diagnoses in gynecomastia are made manually. Both breasts should be palpated and the nipple checked. In case of a lump on the nipple, a doctor should be consulted. During the doctor’s examination, breast USG is performed on the patient. Examination and USG findings are a very important process for diagnosis and treatment.
What are the Treatment Options for Gynecomastia?
There are multiple treatment options in gynecomastia and the specialist physician decides which treatment will be applied. Before starting the treatment, it is checked whether the patient has a different problem and tests are carried out to see if there is a hormonal disorder. In order to carry out these tests, the patient is first examined in the endocrine department and checked by an endocrine department physician. Gynecomastia treatment options are determined according to the type of gynecomastia. There are many different types of gynecomastia and they are classified in different ways. In addition, the age of the patient is an important factor in the treatment option.
The Nick classification is used for the treatment of gynecomastia in adolescent boys. In the treatment of patients of different ages, the patient’s age and hormonal levels are also very important. Depending on the suitability of the situation, the patient can also be treated with medication. Generally, tamoxifen is among the most commonly used drugs in gynecomastia. In the use of medication, the patient should go to the doctor for regular check-ups and have his tests done. However, drug treatment may not always give successful results, different techniques may be used or surgery may be required for people who do not respond to drug treatment.
Gynecomastia Surgery and Techniques
Gynecomastia surgery is a surgical intervention and surgery is indicated as the most definitive solution. After examining the patient, the surgeon predicts how to proceed and informs the patient. Different methods can be used in the treatment of gynecomastia. These methods are as follows:
- Hard breast tissue is detected in glandular type gynecomastia. It is surgically removed.
- In mixed type gynecomastia, the diagnosis of excess tissue and fat in the breast is made and it can be intervened with liposuction. Does not require surgical procedure.
- In Fatty Type gynecomastia, adipose tissue is detected and can be intervened with liposuction. Fat tissue is heavy, it can only be treated with liposuction. Does not require surgical procedure.
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